Many of you, certainly, heard about surprising time of "white nights" of St.-Petersburg.
In summer days, more than one and a half months heavens above city as if do not die away, varying only from the bright sun up to soft half-dark pastels. The climatic phenomenon of the White nights is one of the main sights of St.-Petersburg. The white nights of Petersburg are sung by Russian poets, displayed on cloths of many known painters, their surprising time outsiding especially appreciate young the romanticism, aspiring to get in city on Neva in the middle of June.
In June the white nights begin in Peter. They last, as a rule, some weeks and come to an end in the middle of July. At this time night in Peter merges with day and disappears. In one o'clock in the morning in streets of Petersburg reigns a smoky twilight of seven-hour morning. And at midnight it is possible even to see the sun on horizon.
Sometimes, we are inhabitants of this surprising city behind vanity of a life we cease to notice this beauty and to admire with her(it). Beauty of the white nights, for the sake of which many people of a planet fly by thousand kilometers to come to be in Petersburg, to inhale its(his) sea air which only at the white night so is surprisingly fresh and fragrant. Magnificence of an architectural ensemble of city in addition emphasizes special illumination(coverage) and if above city hangs a small fog Petersburg turns to the city-phantom attracting, romantic, and time as if(as) stops, trying to prolong this disapearing short night...
Having visited at such night on quay of the river of Neva, having made on a boat or the steam-ship water walk on channels, or simply having observed night cultivation of bridges, it is possible to get precious, unforgettable memoirs.
St.-Petersburg or as it frequently name Northern Venice, represents the city constructed on islands. Its central part is bound by a network of channels and the rivers through which the set beautiful is thrown, unique in own way, bridges. Not without reason Petersburg is famous for the whole world for the leaf bridges. But also other bridges, by the way, too are worthy, as also are magnificent creations architectural art. The names and history they make an integral part of city and are its(his) full inhabitants. In total, in northern capital of our Native land, including suburbs, it is totaled about 800 bridges of various configurations and types. A similar abundance and a variety of bridges and bridges completely not surprisingly for Petersburg located on islands.
However originally in history of city full denying bridge-build experts was observed. The founder of St.-Petersburg, Peter I, demanded from the townspeople to overcome water elements by boats or in special cases on ferries, wishing to that to accustom petersburgers to water. It is interesting, that in 18 century on the rivers and channels of city the real Venetian gondolas plied. Erection of bridges was authorized only with rare exception, and only on roads and the streets necessary for transportation of the important cargoes. Similar exception became the first, constructed in 1703, Peter (with 1887 - Ioannovsky) the bridge which has connected Birch (City) island with Harel, where construction of the Peter and Paul Fortress was developed. It has been constructed of a tree. Then, as in wooden performance, in Petersburg has appeared Anichkov the bridge thrown through Anonymous Eric (later the river Fontanka).
It is necessary to note, as to this day, in feature of St.-Petersburg there are some the wooden bridges thrown through Okhta, Monasterka, Fontanka, and even the 300-meter 24-flying bridge through Small Nevka - Big Peter. Wooden bridges from glue designs, were constructed and presently so in 1980th years have been erected the Red ship builder and Lavrsky 2-nd, executed in the form of an arch on foundations of the ancient bridge of construction of 1830 more years. This bridge became so refined with the art point of view that has got under protection of the state as a monument of engineering art and architecture. In the further practice of construction of bridges the stone, built of which bridges began to be applied, became really pride of St.-Petersburg. By the way, the very first stone bridges, such as Hermitage, Prachechny, Upper-Lebyazhy, the Stone bridge through Griboedov's channel, and to this day decorate city.
With arrival of 1786 when Ekaterininsky the park of Tsarskoe Selo was decorated with small foot bridges, the epoch of metal bridge constructions has begun. First these bridges have been executed under project J. Quarengi. In territory of the city iron bridges have appeared hardly later, in 1793-94, in a residence of prince Potyomkin-Taurian, in present Taurian to a garden. These most interesting park designs were kept up to now practically in a protogenic kind. However the further development, at the decision of the town-planning problems(tasks), similar constructions for some reason have not received. Probably, there was not because the mastered and advanced process in Russia pig-iron moulding, has intercepted a palm tree of superiority. So, pig-iron moulding began to be applied actively at a construction of bridges of a modular design. From this material in 1806 under the project of the architect and engineer V.I. Geste has been erected Green (Police or National) the bridge which has connected coast of the river Moika, and so harmoniously entered in the general panorama of the Neva prospectus. For short enough time interval, with 1806 for 1840, in St.-Petersburg it has been built at once twelve pig-iron bridges, thrown through small water-currents of city. The culmination pig-iron bridge-build arts became erection of the first constant bridge through Neva - Blagoveshchensk (Nikolaev, nowadays the bridge of Lieutenant Schmidt). It has been built under the project of engineer S.V.Kerbedza and architect A.P.Bryullov in 1850.
The new stage in history of Petersburg bridge-build practice has begun with the advent of the small foot bridge with 15-meter flight in Ekaterinhoffsky park, in 1823. At its construction, the author of a construction, engineer P.P.Bazen, has applied use of iron circuits as the basic bearing(carrying) design. Such system subsequently used at construction of other Petersburg bridges, has received the name trailing. Construction transport trailing Panteleymons the bridge through Fontanka, under the project of the engineer of Century Treter, has begun as in 1823. Passing a part of this 43-meter construction was wooden and it was suspended to five chain circuits by means of iron suspension brackets. Thus, in a design properties of the iron, capable to perceive stretching(dragging out) efforts have been used. Pig-iron pilons of the bridge worked, on the contrary, on compression. As a whole the built bridge has turned out openwork, richly decorated, with rather picturesque silhouette.